Cognitive ability of preschool, primary and secondary school children in Costa Rica.
Journal of Biosocial Science
January 20, 2017
Cognitive abilities of children in Costa Rica and Austria were compared using three age groups (N = 385/366). Cognitive ability tests (mental speed, culture reduced/fluid intelligence, literacy/crystallized intelligence) were applied that differed in the extent to which they refer to school-related knowledge. Preschool children (kindergarten, 5–6 years old, NCR = 80, NAu = 51) were assessed with the Coloured Progressive Matrices (CPM), primary school children (4th grade, 9–11 years old, NCR = 71, NAu = 71) with ZVT (a trail-making test), Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM) and items from PIRLS-Reading and TIMSS-Mathematics, and secondary school students (15–16 years old, NCR = 48, NAu = 48) with ZVT, Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM) and items from PISA-Reading and PISA-Mathematics. Additionally, parents and pupils were given questionnaires covering family characteristics and instruction. Average cognitive abilities were higher in Austria (Greenwich-IQ MCR = 87 and MAu = 99, dIQ = 12 points) and differences were smaller in preschool than in secondary school (dIQ = 7 vs 20 points). Differences in crystallized intelligence were larger than in fluid intelligence (mental speed: dIQ = 12, Raven: dIQ = 10, student achievement tests: dIQ = 17 IQ points). Differences were larger in comparisons at the level of g-factors. Austrian children were also taller (6.80 cm, d = 1.07 SD), but had lower body mass index (BMICR = 19.35 vs BMIAu = 17.59, d = -0.89 SD). Different causal hypotheses explaining these differences are compared. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)
Foundational reading sub-skills
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- Rindermann, H., Stiegmaier, E. M., & Meisenberg, G. (2015). Cognitive ability of preschool, primary and secondary school children in Costa Rica.. Journal of Biosocial Science, 47(3), 281-310. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0021932014000066